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Make at least two boxes in exactly the same dimensions. One box will be your design box. The other will remain empty. It is the control against which you will measure your progress.

Black Box Dynamic Control

Now we introduce planes into the space. The goal is to create an organization that expands the negative volume. Using the axes of the planes and the tension between them your challenge is to: enhance the awareness of the negative volume; activate the negative volume; make the overall organization as three-dimensional as possible. We will work with static, dynamic, and curvilinear planes, starting with the simplest and moving to the most complex.

As the visual character of the planes become more complex the exercise will require greater restraint, refinement, and subtlety.

System identification

And you will find it more difficult to stay focused on our top priority which is expanding the negative volume. The careful positioning of planes and the tensional relationships between them will give the negative volume a character of its own and make it come alive. Planes should be complementary and should vary in character and proportion. Planes should be placed as three-dimensionally as possible, moving along X, Y, and Z axes. All planes must float.

Use mono-filament line or white thread to hang them. The planes should not pierce or touch each other or the box. To get hung up on them would distract your attention from the issue at hand which is the negative volume of the space. Place the first plane with great consideration. It will establish the main movement in the space and set up a vibration that should affect how everything else works. The first plane really sets up the environment for designing in space.

Place it and then build on it. Beware of the temptation to divide your box into symmetrical parts. To expand the space you want to have a sense of volume and as soon as you create a focused orientation point, you restrict that sense. Establish dominant, subdominant, and subordinate relationships between planes and between spaces. Make the planes aware of each other and activate the spaces between them. Use the movements of the axes and the tensions between the surfaces of the planes to activate the space.

Your two largest planes should really pull apart.

Black Box and White Box Testing

Be very careful never to allow the spaces between individual planes or groupings of planes to feel like separate spaces. They are all part of the whole. Concentrate on looking at all the planes within the box and their relationships to one another in terms of their impact on the negative volume.

The planes should be aware of each other in proportion, character, and axis. Use this awareness to expand and activate the space. It is hard to stay focused on the negative volume. But the challenge is to do that and to use forms that compliment each other and are the appropriate size for the box. Think hot and cold. You may find that within a single box the temperature is higher in some places than in others. You just have to satisfy your eye and feel it in your gut.

You have to persevere.


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If you spend a long time looking very critically, you will train your eye so that it responds to spatial relationships. This sensitivity will open up a whole new world. If I can impress that on you I can almost retire. The axes create an abstraction in themselves that is very satisfactory. When you have completed your space box ask yourself: Have I expanded the negative volume? Have I activated the negative volume? Is it just a construction of planes or does the space have a life of its own?

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Have I achieved an interesting abstract organization? What is the dominant element, movement, gesture? Is there tension between the surfaces and the axes? Does the design look pleasing from all directions? There are no tricks. Negative volume is an abstraction and your task is to painstakingly find your own way to see it, feel it, and control it. In the first problem we work with a minimum of three planes, all cut from foam core of the same thickness and all with 90 degree corners. The proportions of the planes are up to you. In this exercise using static planes, all planes must be parallel or at right angles to each other and to the box.

Never put a plane down the middle of your space. When you have succeeded in expanding the total negative volume in your white box you will add grey value. Use a minimum of three grey values with two steps between each on the color chart. The grey can be placed on any surface--on the top, bottom, or sides of the box, on planes, or on edges.

It is not meant to be decorative. Its purpose is to add complexity--to create additional tensions tensions between grey values as well as between shapes that expand the negative volume and make your grey box look larger than your white one. Be selective in your use of grey values. Remember, in this exercise you want to force the eye to see the space created by the placement of planes, not just to see the planes themselves.

After you have gained some experience in using grey values to expand the negative volume, experiment with color. You may use as many colors as you choose, or one color in many values. Apply them to any surface but do it in a disciplined way. In this exercise we are working with dynamic tapered planes which should not have right angles or triangular arrowhead tips and are never positioned at right angles to other planes or to the top, bottom, or sides of your box.

Once again the planes should not pierce or connect with each other. You may use complex planes - that is, planes that change direction.


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  5. But each such plane must be a single bent plane, not two connected planes. If you decide to work with simple planes, use three.

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    Given that said, it will need be an expertise-demanding take, the testers need to be not only good testers, but also good programmers or more than good programmers. What constitutes, "internal knowledge? I think in any test case, there should be expected results given by the specification used and not determined by how the tester decides to interpret the specification as this can lead to issues where each thinks they are right and blaming the other for the problem.

    As a developer, I mostly write tests for methods in a class as white box tests, simple because I do not want my test to break just because I change the inner works of my code. I only want to my tests to break if my method behavior changes e.

    Over the last 20 years of development, I simple got tired of doing up-to double work just because my unit tests was strongly tied to the code and I need to maintain both application code and test code. Another 5 cents: I hardly never use mocking frameworks, because when I find it necessarily to mock something I prefer to decouple my code instead - and yes in many cases that is very possible especially if you are not working in legacy code Blackbox testing is otherwise known as Integration testing or smoke-screen testing.

    This is mostly applied in a distributed environment which rely on event-driven architecture.

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    You test a service based on another service to see all possible scenarios. This can be referred to as High-Level testing. White box testing refers to unit-testing.